Download A Functional Biology of Nematodes by David A. Wharton PDF

By David A. Wharton

General Editor: Peter Calow, division of Zoology, college of Sheffield, England the most objective of this sequence might be to demonstrate and to give an explanation for the way in which organisms 'make a residing' in nature. on the center of this - their useful biology - is the way in which organisms gather after which utilize assets in metabolism, flow, progress, copy, and so forth. those tactics will shape the basic framework of the entire books within the sequence. every one booklet will be aware of a specific taxon (species, relations, classification or maybe phylum) and should compile details at the shape, body structure, ecology and evolutionary biology of the gang. the purpose may be not just to explain how organisms paintings, but additionally to think about why they've got come to paintings in that approach. by way of focusing on taxa that are renowned, it truly is was hoping that the sequence won't basically illustrate the good fortune of choice, but additionally convey the restrictions imposed upon it via the physiological, morpho­ logical and developmentallimhations of the teams. one other very important characteristic of the sequence can be its organismic orientation. each one publication will emphasise the significance of practical integration within the daily lives and the evolution of organisms. this is often the most important considering, even though it can be precise that organisms will be regarded as collections of gene-determined qualities, they neverthe­ much less engage with their setting as built-in wholes and it truly is during this context that exact qualities were subjected to usual choice and feature evolved.

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Seymour (1983) suggests that the oesophageal pump of Ditylenchus dipsaci acts as a myogenically controlled click mechanism. The pump lining may have two stable positions, open and closed, and is 'clicked' between them by the action of the radial muscles. Click mechanisms were first described in the wing bases of insects. They allow much greater frequencies of movement than could be achieved by direct motoneuron control. Digestion and Absorption The intestine consists of a central lumen, surrounded by a single layer of cells, which may form a syncytium.

The pressure within the pseudocoel exceeds that within the oesophagus; it lengthens and does not dilate, keeping the lumen closed. (C) The pressure within the oesophagus exceeds that within the pseudocoel. It shortens and widens, opening the lumen,L o resting length, Ao resting area of cross-section, Do resting diameter, Vo resting volume of musculature ~. O· ;:s ;:s ~ ~ o ~ - §. ;:s ~ ~ tv 00 Functional Organisation 29 valve, the process is reversed. This, together with the elasticity of the cuticular lining, closes the lumen.

1: Transverse Section through the Contractile Region of the Muscle Cells of Ditylenchus dipsaci 4th-stage Juveniles. The contractile region consists of thick and thin myofilaments in an arrangement typical of nematode obliquely striated muscle. x 130000. 2: Transverse Section through the Ventral Nerve Cord of Caenorhabditis elegans. The nerve cord lies adjacent to the ventral hypodermal cord (H) and they are both enclosed by a basement membrane (BM) . The ventral nerve cord contains the nuclei of the motoneurons (MNN).

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