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By Bruce C. Donaldson

The sequence builds an intensive number of top of the range descriptions of languages worldwide. each one quantity bargains a accomplished grammatical description of a unmarried language including totally analyzed pattern texts and, if acceptable, a glossary and different appropriate info that's on hand at the language in query. There are not any regulations as to language relations or region, and even though particular realization is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and invaluable remedies of higher recognized languages also are integrated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the one criterion is a excessive ordinary of medical caliber.

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The long diphthong ecu [iu] Examples: eeu fiu] 'century', leeu [liu] 'lion', meeue [miua] 'seagulls'. The last example could also be transcribed as [miu*3] showing the bilabial glide that one automatically applies. This sound is often transcribed as feu], a pronunciation which does occur, but fiu] is more common. 5. The long diphthong ieu [iu] Examples: hernieu [fier'niu] 'to renew', Nieu-Seeland [niu'sealant] 'New Zealand'. This spelling occurs in only a couple of words under Dutch influence. 15 The diminutive of words ending in k like bakkie is often rendered [baki), with [k], but this transcription is more phonologically than phonetically based (see footnote 11).

1). 12. The consonant υ [ν] Examples: vakuum [va'kym], variasie [vari'arsi] 'variation', Venesie [va'nisia] ^Venice', Venezuela [voi3s'we:la], Venda [venda], video f'vidiu], via [via], visueel [vijju'eal]; also televisie [tda'visi]. Many words of foreign origin that begin with υ, and which have cognate forms in English, retain the pronounced [v], although variasie, Venesie and televisie and many other such words are heard with [f] too. 1). 13. The consonant v/iv [v] Examples: individuIindiwidu [andava'dy], revolusieIrewolusie [revs'lysi], universiteit [yniversi'tait].

The consonant w [v] Examples: nuwer [nyrvar] 'newer", riwwe [ri'va] 'reefs', waarskuwing [Vairskyvsn] 'warning', wot [vat] 'what'. e. e. g. dwaal [dwa:l] 'to roam', kwaad [kwa:t]'angry*, twee [twea] 'two', swak [swak] 'weak'. It is typical of the areas mentioned in footnote 10 to retain the [v] pronounced in this position. 5. The phonology of international loanwords In the many loanwords used in Afrikaans, most of which are from English but many of which Afrikaans has inherited via Dutch from French, certain phonemes occur which do not occur in indigenous words; such sounds are called randfoneme 'peripheral phonemes'.

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