By Professor (Chair) Randy J Lapolla, Chenglong Huang
This booklet is a whole reference grammar of Qiang, one of many minority languages of southwest China, spoken by way of approximately 70,000 Qiang and Tibetan humans in Aba Tibetan and Qiang self sustaining Prefecture in northern Sichuan Province. It belongs to the Qiangic department of Tibeto-Burman (one of the 2 significant branches of Sino-Tibetan). The dialect offered within the e-book is the Northern Qiang style spoken in Ronghong Village, Yadu Township, Chibusu District, Mao County. This ebook, the 1st book-length description of the Qiang language in English, is the results of decades of labor at the language, and is as typologically finished as attainable. It comprises not just the reference grammar, but in addition an ethnological evaluate, numerous absolutely analyzed texts (mostly conventional stories), and an annotated thesaurus. The language is verb ultimate, agglutinative (prefixing and suffixing), and has either head-marking and based marking morphology. The phonology of Qiang is sort of advanced, with 39 consonants at seven issues of articulation, plus advanced consonant clusters, either in preliminary and ultimate place, in addition to vowel concord, vowel size differences, and a suite of retroflexed vowels. The grammar additionally
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Extra info for A Grammar of Qiang: With Annotated Texts and Glossary (Mouton Grammar Library)
A large number of loan words are also used by the Qiang people. The majority of these loan words are from Chinese (the Southwestern Mandarin dialect), as there has been substantial contact with Chinese since at least the thirteenth century (Sun 1988), but there are also some loan words from Tibetan. There are in fact two or more layers of loans from Chinese, as there are older, harder to identify loans, such as /lup/ Æradishﬂ (< Chinese l|uobo) and /lå/ Æwolfﬂ (< Chinese l|ang), and newer, more transparent loans, such as /kunt®håntån/ Æcommunist partyﬂ (< Chinese g\ongch«and«ang).
D. e. f. g. w˙ m˙ ph˙ ˙˙håji Æbirdﬂ + Æfireﬂ + Æforestﬂ + DIR + DIR + Ætenﬂ + Ætwo + ®pu -xu x®u pi tse t®i -su Æflockﬂ Æsmokeﬂ Æroe deerﬂ Æuncleﬂ Ælook atﬂ Æoneﬂ22 Ætenﬂ > > > > > > > wu®pu mux‘u phux®u ipi itse hat®i jusu Æ(wild) pigeonﬂ Æsmokeﬂ Æwild animalﬂ Æuncleﬂ Æsawﬂ Æelevenﬂ Ætwentyﬂ R-coloring is also involved in vowel harmony: if the second syllable of a compound or prefix + root form has r-coloring, in many cases the first syllable also takes on r-coloring. 16) a. Ùuå Æfiveﬂ + kheﬁ Æhundredﬂ > Ùuåﬁ-kheﬁ Æfive hundredﬂ23 b.
In particular, having such a variety of consonant finals and clusters sets it apart from most other SinoTibetan languages. While the basic vowel inventory is not large, there are phonemic length and r-coloring distinctions. There is also a complex system of vowel harmony, and there are vowel changes due to differences in stress. 4. Sound symbolism does not seem to play a significant role in the language. 1) moÙu-˚a-kå: de-w! 4 for examples of these adverbial uses). 1. Consonants There are thirty-seven consonant phonemes found in the Qiang language, as listed in Table 2: 22 The phonological system Table 2.
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