By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development
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Extra info for A handbook of key federal regulations and criteria for multimedia environmental control
The electronic components of the spectrometer system perform similar functions for both types of detector, though there are differences in the actual equipment used. A block diagram of such a system is shown below. e ete to l e l e ulse l e le e Volt A3-JO e CHAPTER A3 If, for example, the level is set at 2V and the window width at 2V, then only those incoming pulses with sizes between 2V and 4V will generate an output pulse. e. of constant amplitude regardless of the size of the corresponding input pulse, and are fed to a pulse-counting device, commonly called a "scaler" for historic reasons.
E. paralysed, with an apparent count rate of zero. This situation can be potentially hazardous if it causes a survey meter to read zero in a high intensity radiation field. Under more normal circumstances, the easiest way to avoid counting errors due to dead time losses is to keep the count rate reasonably low. Some equipment, such as multichannel analysers, often monitor and compensate for dead time by automatically extending the time of acquisition (the "livetime") beyond the preset counting time.
This effect is known as "source selfabsorption". detector detector 1000 cpm 250 cpm Material near the detector may actually increase the count rate by scattering (reflecting) radiation back into the detector that might otherwise have missed it. source * 10 em 20 em If we substitute a person for the detector in the above example we can see that the inverse square law can be a powerful ally in any attempt to reduce radiation exposure. On the other hand, if we have a case of skin contamination, for example, it can be an equally powerful enemy.