By Mizuho Yabushita
The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, considerable, and renewable biomass corresponding to cellulose and chitin to chemical substances. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to precious compounds has attracted around the world curiosity for development sustainable societies. First, the present scenario of this sizzling learn quarter has been summarized good within the common advent of the thesis, which is helping readers to get to grips with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding creation of glucose from cellulose through the use of an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that's one of many maximum yields ever pronounced. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that vulnerable acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that is markedly assorted from mentioned catalytic platforms that require powerful acids. additionally, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been built. the combo of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis permits the construction of N-acetylated monomers in solid yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic structures verified during this thesis are detailed within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic reviews in accordance with characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts throughout the reactions. the implications might be valuable for readers to layout and enhance new catalysts and response systems.
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Additional info for A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering
7) were able to hydrolyze cellulosic molecules [156–158]. This reaction occurred only when inducing stressful conformations by grafting cellulosic molecules onto SiO2 (and Al2O3) surface via the formation of ether bonds between OH groups of the substrate and those on SiO2 (and Al2O3). This enthalpically favored adsorption kept other neighboring OH groups on SiO2 (and Al2O3) close to the immobilized polymer. In this case, the OH groups had enhanced chances to activate glycosidic bonds as depicted in Fig.
Chen X, Yan N (2014) Novel catalytic systems to convert chitin and lignin into valuable chemicals. Catal Surv Asia 18(4):164–176 11. McKendry P (2002) Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass. Bioresour Technol 83(1):37–46 12. Mosier N, Wyman C, Dale B, Elander R, Lee YY, Holtzapple M, Ladisch M (2005) Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 96 (6):673–686 13. Walther T, Hensirisak P, Agblevor FA (2001) The influence of aeration and hemicellulosic sugars on xylitol production by Candida tropicalis.
The author therefore speculates that mechanical force may degrade the crystalline structure of cellulose during their catalytic reactions, giving a good performance in the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. Meanwhile, Onda et al. prepared sulfonated carbon (denoted as AC–SO3H) by boiling commercial activated carbon (AC) in concentrated H2SO4, and AC–SO3H produced glucose in 41 % yield at 423 K for 24 h (entry 18) [138, 139]. After 18 1 General Introduction exposing AC–SO3H to reaction conditions without cellulose, they performed hydrolysis of cellulose again using the ﬁltrate as a solvent without adding any solid catalysts; as a result, glucose yield was as low as that of a blank reaction without catalyst.
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