By Kevin C. Dunn, Timothy M. Shaw (eds.)
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Extra info for Africa’s Challenge to International Relations Theory
Versions of Emerich de Vattel's formula formed the basis of the allocation of values within the international 36 Sovereignty in Africa order, including sovereignty, and that of the various determinate modes of inter-communal interactions. This point has received much attention among critics of so-called international colonial law (see de Courcel 1935). Yet, the coexistence of different regimes of sovereignty is the more significant dimension of the historical morality emerging from the Western moral imaginary.
The attitudes of Western powers toward Africa have not been so charitable. This is evidenced by the peculiar political consequences attendant on the material deficiencies of the Congo. Like Belgium and Switzerland, the polities of Central Africa which were amalgamated in the colonial discourse as `The Congo' did not follow in the mythical Westphalian trajectory. At the time of amalgamation, the region was covered by loosely connected kingdoms and political entities (some of them confederated). The last kingdom of the Congo was reunified in 1710 (Collins 1990).
The point that needs emphasis here is not so much South Africa's response to perceived threats to its security but UNITA's willingness to be used as an instrument of a foreign state in order to survive and develop its own capabilities. In all, SADF invaded Angola twelve times after 1975. These incursions were crucial for UNITA's development as a major military force. Advancing behind SADF, UNITA would occupy territory and keep most weapons captured by the South African army. While SADF kept the government occupied, UNITA was able to expand its guerrilla activity throughout most of the country, forcing the MPLA government to become even more dependent on Cuban and Russian military assistance.
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