By Karlheinz Hill, Wolfgang von Rybinski, Gerhard Stoll
Alkyl polyglycosides are a brand new iteration of multi-application, ecologically secure nonionic surfactants that shape a certainly reusable source. Written by way of pioneers within the box, this identify information the technological, ecological, physicochemical and function points of alkyl polyglycosides, and discusses the present patent state of affairs of those new commercially doable fabrics.
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Extra info for Alkyl Polyglycosides: Technology, Properties, and Applications
The response factors and retention times are determined using the commercially available octyl-, decyl-, and dodecyl-p-D-glucopyranoside and dodecyl-p-D-maltoside for calibration. Components for which no calibration substance is available are quantified using the response factor of the nearest calibration substance of the same type. All alkyl oligoglycosides are quantified with the response factor of dodecyl-p-D-maltoside. A complete set of components identified and quantified by HTGC in a typical alkyl polyglycoside sample is shown in Table 2.
2 Multicomponent systems The addition of fatty alcohols as a third component to alkyl polyglycoside/ water mixtures leads to the appearance of different lamellar phases over the entire concentration range 161. This behavior is typical of the influence of fatty alcohols on the phase behavior of binary surfactant/water systems 1141. The lamellar phases are surrounded by L, phases which are optically isotropic and, at the same time, shows strong streaming birefringence. Figure 8 shows the phase diagram determined for the addition of hexanol to various mixtures of C,,,,, APG and water.
The analytical techniques most commonly used to perform these tasks are thin layer chromatography and HPLC. 1 Alkyl polyglycoside analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC) A normal-phase TLC system is used for qualitative and quantitative determination of alkyl polyglycosides. The alkyl polyglycoside type is identified by reversed-phase TLC. The normal-phase system is shown in Figure 7. In most cases, the analysis of samples by TLC does not entail any particular sample preparation. 5-1Vo) is applied to the TLC plate in the form of 1 cm lines together with solutions of alkyl polyglycoside calibration substances.
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