Download An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference) by N. E. Collinge PDF

By N. E. Collinge

* Examines how language works, accounting for its nature, its use, its learn and its history
* accomplished indexes of subject matters and Technical phrases, and Names
* conscientiously illustrated to give an explanation for key issues within the text

`This wealthy repository of knowledge on all features of language is a needs to for all libraries in greater schooling, faculties and bigger public libraries.' - Library Review
`Each article has a great bibliography. additionally, there are accomplished indexes of issues and technical phrases and names. hugely advised for all collage and basic public libraries.' - Choice
`This very important e-book is in lots of methods a state-of-the -art survey of present conceptions of, and methods to, language, with beneficiant references to extra specified assets. every one bankruptcy has a great bibliography.' - Language International
`A complete advisor ... with very thorough bibliographies ... Collinge's Encyclopedia is suggested to educational libraries.' - Reference Reviews
`The bibliographies are a useful relief ... the editor is to be congratulated for having performed a very good task ... there are almost no components of language and linguistics that don't get a glance in someplace, and there's strong signposting within the textual content itself.' - Nigel Vincent, instances greater schooling complement

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Extra resources for An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference)

Sample text

2 Differences between varieties of the same language So far we have been speaking of alternations between forms in the same variety of a language. However, as our remarks above on the pronunciation of l in different varieties of English begin to suggest, the situation becomes much more complex when we compare different regional or social accents. While not all speakers can consistently reproduce accents in their own speech, the overwhelming majority of speakers are able to understand a very wide range of regional and social varieties.

In Russian, for example, sounds very similar to clear [l] and dark [l] can make a difference of meaning: /mɔl/ ‘moth’ v. /mɔɫ/ ‘pier’. Such differences between allophonic status and phonemic status can cause difficulties for learners; English learners of Russian will have no trouble learning Russian /mɔɫ/ ‘pier’, with dark [l] in the final position, but may be expected to find /mɔl/ ‘moth’ problematic because of the clear [l] in a position where it would not appear in English. For the allophone v.

This approach runs into difficulties with informal or colloquial speech, however: many of the properties which systematically are taken to be a part of 24 LANGUAGE AS ORGANISED SOUND the form of a word may in these contexts not be present within the speech signal at all (cf. 2 above). Take, for instance, the English word seven (phonetically [sevən] in careful speech). g. ban and van are different words. In informal speech the word might be pronounced something like [sebm], where the segment after [e] is a plosive (and thus [−continuant]), not a fricative; the essential distinctive feature of fricativeness ([+continuant]) can no longer be found in the speech signal at this point.

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